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Somalia - Overview



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  • Summary


    Somalia is one of the world’s most politically and economically unstable regions, with civil unrest, terrorism and widespread militancy. The main Islamic militant group, al-Shabaab, continues to launch attacks although offensives by the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) have significantly reduced the area under their control. Al-Shabaab have increasingly resorted to terror tactics as a result, both in Somalia and abroad: most notably the Kampala bombings in 2010 and the Westgate mall attack in Nairobi in 2013. Incidents of piracy off the coast of Somalia have substantially decreased following a concerted international effort and, although attacks continue, the Gulf of Aden is no longer as hostile to shipping. The establishment of the Federal Government of Somalia, which replaced the Transitional Federal Government in August 2012, has introduced a measure of stability in Mogadishu, although the government remains plagued by corruption and lacks the capacity to introduce proper regulatory processes or provide many basic public services. Autonomous Somaliland and semi-autonomous Puntland are comparatively stable, and these areas have enjoyed periods of relative peace, security and political stability. Crime is pervasive throughout the country.